The PRISMA Statement
The aim of the PRISMA Statement is to help authors report a wide array of systematic reviews to assess the benefits and harms of a health care intervention. PRISMA focuses on ways in which authors can ensure the transparent and complete reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
We have adopted the definitions of systematic review and meta-analysis used by the Cochrane Collaboration . A systematic review is a review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyze and summarize the results of the included studies. Meta-analysis refers to the use of statistical techniques in a systematic review to integrate the results of included studies.
- Download a full-text copy of the PRISMA Statement here
- Download a full-text copy of the PRISMA Statement in Spanish here
The PRISMA Statement consists of a checklist and a flow diagram, and is intended to be accompanied by the PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration document.
The PRISMA Checklist
Please note that the published PRISMA checklists contain an error in the wording for Item 21. The item should read: "Present the main results of the review. If meta-analyses are done, include for each, confidence intervals and measures of consistency" in accordance with the text in the Explanation and Elaboration document.
The 27 checklist items pertain to the content of a systematic review and meta-analysis, which include the title, abstract, methods, results, discussion and funding.
The PRISMA Flow Diagram
The flow diagram depicts the flow of information through the different phases of a systematic review. It maps out the number of records identified, included and excluded, and the reasons for exclusions.
The PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration Document
It is strongly recommended that the PRISMA Statement be used in conjunction with the PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration Document. This document is intended to enhance the use, understanding and dissemination of the PRISMA Statement. Through examples and explanations, the meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented.
- Download a full-text copy of the PRISMA Explanatory and Elaboration document here.
For information on Citing and Usage of the PRISMA Statement, click here.